It is estimated that out of 305.9 mha of reporting area 145 mha is in need of conservation measures. Gullies are the most spectacular evidence of the destruction of soil.
Saltation:the major portion of the soil carried by wind is
moved in a series of short bounces called Saltation.The soilcarried in a Saltation consists of fine particles ranging from0.1 – 0.5 mm in diameter.
Mechanical measures of erosion control: -
1.Basin listing: Basin listing consists in making of smallinterrupted basins along the contour with a special implementcalled a basin -lister.
2.Subsoiling: This method consists in breaking with a subsoiler the hard and impermeable subsoil to conserve more rainwater by improving the physical conditions of a soil.
3.Contour – Bunding:This consists in making a comparatively narrow based embankment at intervals across the slope of theland on a level that is along the contour.It is an importantmeasure that conserves soil and water in arid & semiarid areas.Slope - 3-6 %
4. Bench terracing:It consists of a series of platforms having
suitable vertical drops along contours or on suitable gradedlines across the general slope of the land.The vertical dropmay vary from 60 – 180 cm depending upon slope and soilcondition.Slope- 16 – 33%
Water sources: -
• The southwesterly monsoon contributes over 80 % to the
• Shallow well derive their water supply from the surrounding
area through seepage, percolation, high water table etc.